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Myocardial status

Myocardium is the muscle responsible for heart contractions, built up of striated muscle filaments. These muscle filaments are able to do quick contractions and continuous movements (you can learn more here about our hearts structure).

The heart muscle is one of the three major types of muscle (the other two types are skeletal and smooth muscle). Heart muscle has a striped structure, just like skeleton muscles, while its nucleus is centralized similarly to smooth muscles.

Factors related to the endurance of the heart muscle are the following ones: 

  • mithocondrions are able to execute aerobe breathing by means of oxidative phosphorization
  • a great number of myoglobin can be found in it
  • has an excellent blood flow

With the help of these characteristics heart muscle is able to supply brain continuously with oxygen and nutrients. Heart is attuned to aerobe breathing which results in not being able to pump enough blood in case of ischemic status.

Normally, energy comes from fat in 60 %, carbohydrates in 35 % and amino acids and ketone in 5 %. This ratio may vary depending on the nutrition supply.

Cardiomyopathy is a definition for all those heart diseases (you can learn more here) that develops due to the failure of the heart’s pumping function. Cardiomyopathy can be divided into subgroups featured by the type of disorder. Symptoms vary in case of each types, and therefore we can draw conclusions regarding the cause of problem and we can also choose the specific treatment on the basis of symptoms which vary by 3 main types. 

 

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

The thickening of the heart muscle is the cause of this disease, which will impede the proper working of valves and block the circulation of blood. This type is often congenital. 

Symptoms:

  • dizziness
  • fainting
  • pain in the chest
  • breathlessness in case of physical loading
  • often arrhythmia 

Dilated cardiomyopathy

In this case the heart muscle elongates and therefore the heart becomes enlarged. This common heart disease can reach a very serious or even fatal status. Due to enlargement, myocardial force decreases and therefore the heart will be unable to pump enough blood. (you can learn more about ECG here)

Symptoms:

  • tachycardia
  • breathlessness
  • pale, coolish and sweltering (because of malfunctioning circulation)
  • moodiness
  • asitia
  • nausea

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

In this kind of cardiomyopathy the walls of the Left Ventricle are rigid, and the heart is restricted from stretching and properly filling with blood.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

A rare kind of cardiomyopathy which causes the enlargement of the Right Ventricle and the disorder of the Right Chambers of the Heart. It is caused by a genetic defect.

Treatment

Primarily the arrhythmia can be cured by medicines or by implanting a pacemaker.

In case of Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the enlarged part of myocardium can even be removed by surgery.

In the majority of dilated cardiomyopathy cases, medicine treatment is used for decreasing the strain and increasing the heart muscle’s functioning.

It is important to know that these diseases cannot be cured, these are only treatments of the symptoms. The nearly original status necessary for the proper functioning of the heart muscle cannot be restored. Thickening or weakening of the heart muscle is irreversible.

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Széchenyi 2020